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Four Type Systems


This blog is about all sort of personality systems based on four categories.

Thursday, July 25, 2013

On 4:12 PM by Jane Rekas in    No comments

  • "Michelangelo’s understanding of the four temperaments can be seen in his four sixteenth century sculptures: Evening – Crepuscolo (melancholic), Morning – Aurora (sanguine), Night – Notte (phlegmatic) and Day – Giorno (choleric).
  • Later in the sixteenth century, Shakespeare is said to have developed his unforgettable characters upon an understanding of the melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic and choleric types.
  • In Rudolf Steiner’s essay The Four Temperaments (1908), he documents a revival of the once-popular philosophy. “Particularly it must be of interest to learn how we can handle the temperaments pedagogically in childhood. For in education the kind of temperament must be carefully observed. With children it is especially important to be able to guide and direct the developing temperament, but later also it is still important for anyone in self-education.”
  • In 1979, George Balanchine choreographed a famous ballet called The Four Temperaments with music by Paul Hindemith. Dancers depicted the temperaments and the music was themed to each of the four classifications. In January 4 2000 Time magazine it was named ‘The Best Dance Of The Century’.
  • In the 1980s, the temperaments were revolutionised by psychologist David Keirsey. His classifications are Artisan, Guardian, Idealist and Rational. See www.keirsey.com.
  • In John Gray’s 1999 parenting book Children Are From Heaven (he penned the famous Men are From Mars, Women are from Venus series of titles), he discusses another modern version of the four classical temperaments. His categories are Sensitive, Active, Responsive and Receptive."
  • Four Temperaments Parenting Books

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